Toyota aims to have long-range full electric vehicles mass produced by 2020. Their first vehicle will be manufactured in China.
Based on EPA cycle
Year of Release (Estimated)2019
Slow (Home and some Public Chargers)
Each EV has an inbuilt charger capable of receiving AC power. The charging port could have different fittings depending on where you are in the world. Even the same vehicle model sold in different countries could have different implementations.
|Type 1 (SAE J1772 or "J Plug")
This plug is common in Australasia, Asia, the US and Canada.
|Type 2 (IEC 62196 or "Mennekes")
This plug is common in Europe.
Only available in some public chargers, this uses DC power to charge the battery directly. Each EV has a maximum speed at which it can be charged, and batteries are only fastcharged up to 80% capacity to ensure battery health. There are a number of different port configurations.
Many fast chargers will have multiple connectors, and power capacity (which is increasing as the technology improves).
CCS (Combined Charging System)
CCS ports are a combination of the slow charging port and an extra 2-pin socket. Therefore they can be either Type 1 or Type 2.
Developed in Japan, the CHAdeMO is common in vehicles such as the Nissan Leaf.
Tesla developed their own fastcharge connector, although in some countries without proprietary Tesla chargers, the vehicle has a cable to adapt to CHAdeMO or Type 2 CCS.
How Fast Can An EV Charge?
Slow charging (home and public)
Slow charging is limited by the lower of: the EV's onboard charging speed, or the output of the wall-mounted charger you are plugged into. Charging speed is measured in kilowatts(kW). For example: your wall-mounted charger can output 32 Amps at 240 volts = 7.68 kW of power, however your EV's onboard charger is 6.6 kW - then that is the maximum speed. The higher the battery capacity, the more time it takes to charge.
DC fast chargers are being built with higher capacities, however this is still limited by the hardware limitations the EV manufacturer has placed on the battery. Most DC fast chargers start at 40kW (many have a much higher capacity).
Toyota has been the market leader in hybrid vehicles, and has been reluctant to pursue full electric vehicles. This has recently changed with Toyota announcing a new strategy towards long range vehicles making use of solid state battery technology.
The first EV will be mass-produced in China in 2019, and may be based on the C-HR SUV.